Case 002 Witnesses, experts and Civil Parties

Witnesses, experts and Civil Parties who have appeared in Case 002. Click on photo for larger version.

Mrs. HIN Sotheany Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 9 January 2017
Mr. VOEUN Vuthy

Voeun Vuthy was born on December 5, 1973 in Siem Reap. He lost his father and other five member of his family to the regime. He presently works for the Ministry of Fine Arts. He studied anthropology at the University of Fine Arts and then studied in Japan, Germany and Italy. He also studied at University of Hawaii in bone conversation and remains. He was involved in research regarding archeology relating to human bones in 1988. Lately, he conducted research regarding bone remains at Choeung Ek and Kraing Tang Chan, as well as Prasat Padei and Kok Prech. He has many projects, one of which was the conservation of the victim remains with the aim to maintain the evidence available with those victims' remains in order to preserve and to record the history that happened between 1975 to 1979. Another purpose was to record the remains of the marks on those victims' bones to show them about the brutality that were inflicted upon them. The process of conservation of the victims' bones as well as the analysis involves 12 stages, which begin with studying marks and traces and finally conserving the bones so they don’t decay. Furthermore, they interviewed people who worked at the sites during the regime and any possible witnesses. Only at Kra Tanh Chan they preserved 6,426 craniums. His studies concluded that victims died from shackling, hit by clubs in the head, poisoned by chemicals and ear perforation.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 13 December 2016, Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 14 December 2016
NONG Nim

Nuon Trech was born in Trapeang Chuk Village in Steung Trong District, Kampong Cham Province.  He joined the army when he was 15. Oeun was his Division 310 commander and Voeung his deputy. He worked as a medic before 1975, although he never received any training. He worked at the district hospital at Chamkar Leu. In 1975, he was transferred to the Zone General Staff Hospital. When Phnom Penh was liberated, he was transferred to K-99, and then to a military hospital. He was responsible for treating wounded soldiers and people with malaria. He worked there for nearly one year and was then transferred to Battalion 314. He was arrested at this place, being accused of treason.

According to the witness’ recollection, Battallion 314 and other regiments were convened to a meeting at a school north of Wat Phom. They were told that their leaders were traitors and that they should remain calm. They heard over a loudspeaker a confession of Commander Oeun. Trech returned to his unit and leaders were arrested from time to time, alongside their wives. They were told that they were reassigned to other locations. He first thought that he himself was simply reassigned to another location and not arrested. He was sent to a cell, believed to be in Tuol Sleng, until Yeat took him out. He then went back to continue working as a medic.

Afterwards he was linked to the “enemy network” and transferred to Kampong Chhnang Airfield for re-fashioning.  As a prisoner, he was also told to burn explosives in the mountain and break stones to build the airport. Other prisoners working were badly injured and even killed by the explosives. They worked from 4am until 11am. They had a break for an hour and then worked from 12pm until 5pm. They worked every night from 6pm until 10pm. He never returned to Tuol Sleng after 1979.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 12 December 2016
2-TCW-823

He has four children and an adopted daughter.  He married his wife in 1976, and even though he had no previous love relationship with her he said it was a mutual agreement. Ta Mut presided his wedding. He joined the Khmer Rouge Revolution in 1970, initially on a village level, but then as sector-level in the Kampot forces. He was then transferred to the Southwest Zone Forces Division 3, sent to Phnom Penh to help liberate it and then was sent to Kampong Som alongside all Division 3, where he was the commander of the Battalion 560 from the Regiment 63. He had 300 men under his command, he had to organize ammunition and food to be transported to the islands of Koh Ses or Koh Thmei. He was told he was deployed there to protect their territory, as the islands were close to the border with Koh Tral, occupied by the Vietnamese. He said there were brief attacks by Vietnamese fishing boats with weapons, which fired first and then his Battalion responded. His boats never crossed into Vietnamese waters, as it was his understanding that Cambodia shouldn’t attack Vietnam. He said Regiment 63 was composed of three Battalions: Battalion 530, of which Vet was in charge, as for 540 it was Sary, and the witness was in charge of 560. He doesn’t know if Vet was Eung Vet. He attended meetings at the divisional headquarters where he spoke to either Ta Mut or Brother Dim. After Phnom Pen was liberated, he attended a study session at the Olympic where he saw Son Sen. Only Pol Pot spoke during the session, which lasted 4 days, and it was about the defence and construction of the country. He was transferred to Phnom Penh in 1978, and stayed there roughly 10 days until the Vietnamese came in, he was in charge of organizing the evacuation of the labor force. He met Khieu Samphan in Phnom Penh.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 12 December 2016, Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 13 December 2016
2-TCW-971

Witness 2-TCW-971 was a teacher in the Takeo province between 1975 and 1977, and then he became the Chairman of the Commerce Office in Ang Roka in the beginning of 1977. His work involved recording the numbers of materials brought in and taken out, including clothes and salt, but he specified there was no rice. He stated that Ta Mok, the Southwest Zone leader, had worked there for a long time and he saw his face after the coup. He recalls that he left Ang Roka for Battambang by train on the 1st of January of 1978, after he was informed by Ta Mok of the poor situation and food shortage in Battambang. However, when he got to Thma Koul in Battambang, there was no food shortage, having seen rice and sugar stored in warehouses in the market; what was scarce, however, was the food rationing. The witness explains that he was confused as to why the food had not been shared. As a result, the rice had gone bad, resulting in the food shortage. In response, he called those in charge and asked them to give the rice stored to the people on the working units, and he said the people were happy that he did that.

He was advised by Ta Chhay that people who were placed in a mobile unit should be allowed to return home. He agreed with Leng Tirith’s observation that “there was something wrong going on in the province”, to which he added “people did not live in proper homes and that would be violating the directive, and that people were working too hard”. When asked whether Ta Thom was the Sector 3 Secretary when he arrived, he replied that the post was vacant and that he heard that Ta Thom was the sector secretary, but had never seen him and did not know when he disappeared.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 15 December 2016
2-TCW-920

Witnses 2-TCW-920 was with the Issarak movement during the 1950s and joined the Khmer Rouge around 1966. He was assigned to work for Ruos Nhim and Nuon Chea as a messenger between Phnom Penh and Battambang. Ruos Nhim appointed him to deliver messages to Nuon Chea. He confirmed that both leaders trusted him also during Democratic Kampuchea. He became a party member.

When asked about Ta Hoeun, he said he was removed by Ruos Nhim later on. Ruos Nhim mistrusted Ta Hoeun. He did not know where Ta Hoeun was sent to. He said also Ta Chham disappeared, and that in 1975 Ta Ngon died as he rose to a divisional commander.

When asked about Ruos Nhim arrest by the Southwest, he said it was “because Ruos Nhim joined hands with the yuon.”

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 6 December 2016
Mr. NUON Trech

Nuon Trech was born in Trapeang Chuk Village in Steung Trong District, Kampong Cham Province.  He joined the army when he was 15. Oeun was his Division 310 commander and Voeung his deputy. He worked as a medic before 1975, although he never received any training. He worked at the district hospital at Chamkar Leu. In 1975, he was transferred to the Zone General Staff Hospital. When Phnom Penh was liberated, he was transferred to K-99, and then to a military hospital. He was responsible for treating wounded soldiers and people with malaria. He worked there for nearly one year and was then transferred to Battalion 314. He was arrested at this place, being accused of treason.

According to the witness’ recollection, Battallion 314 and other regiments were convened to a meeting at a school north of Wat Phom. They were told that their leaders were traitors and that they should remain calm. They heard over a loudspeaker a confession of Commander Oeun. Trech returned to his unit and leaders were arrested from time to time, alongside their wives. They were told that they were reassigned to other locations. He first thought that he himself was simply reassigned to another location and not arrested. He was sent to a cell, believed to be in Tuol Sleng, until Yeat took him out. He then went back to continue working as a medic.

Afterwards he was linked to the “enemy network” and transferred to Kampong Chhnang Airfield for re-fashioning.  As a prisoner, he was also told to burn explosives in the mountain and break stones to build the airport. Other prisoners working were badly injured and even killed by the explosives. They worked from 4am until 11am. They had a break for an hour and then worked from 12pm until 5pm. They worked every night from 6pm until 10pm. He never returned to Tuol Sleng after 1979.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 5 December 2016
Mr. SIN Oeng

Sin Oeng was born on the 8th of March of 1957. He was part of a mobile unit from April 1975 until 1976, until he was taken to “a zone”, where he became a personal guard for Sao Phim. He was related to Sao Phim, as his deceased grandmother was Sao Phim’s cousin. He saw Chea Sim, who was the district officer of Ponhea Krek. The witness confirmed that Sao Phim’s daughter Sy, married to the son of the Northwest Zone committee, Ruos Nhim.  He heard that Pol Pot had tried to stage a coup d’état. He did not know who initiated the coup d’état, he only knew that the Center waged arrests against the East. He added that Sao Phim said to Heng Samrin that they would fight again. He said that they had talked about gathering forces and fighting Pol Pot, just ten days before Sao Phim died.  According to the witness, Sao Phim told Heng Samrin that he was going to Phnom Penh to speak to Pol Pot and “sort things out.” He was certain that he saw Nuon Chea at Suong, adding Nuon Chea slept there in the same building as Sao Phim’s bodyguards.

He was present in Sao Phim’s last trip to Phnom Penh. He recalls it was a convoy with Mr. Oeng and other eight people (including Sao Phim), that went to Wat Ounalom. Eventually, they were ambushed outside Akrey Ksatr and Oeng managed to escape by hiding in the lakes under the water raisins. He was captured and arrested in Vihear Suork. He was recognized and subsequently released and placed in a district office, where the head officer told him that Sao Phim was alive. He later fled the place and during the journey was informed of Sao Phim’s death. According to villagers, Sao Phim committed suicide but the witness never saw the body himself. The last time he saw Sao Phim alive had been in Akrey Ksatr where they were ambushed.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 1 December 2016
2-TCCP-1063

The Civil Party is from Svay Rieng province. He was a Lon Nol soldier and as such was taken away supposedly for a study session but in reality he was to be killed. He was given two tins of rice to feed ten people after a hard day of work digging canals. He said the Khmer Rouge evicted them from their homelands. He met Khieu Samphan and Svay Ampil Market, where the latter distributed rice and clothes for the trip to the southwest zone. The CP quoted Khieu Samphan as saying the revolution would not allow for different classes. Many of his family members were killed.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 1 December 2016
Mr. Seng Lytheng

The witness was born on 17 July 1946 in Kampong Thom province. He is Pol Pot’s nephew – his father is Pol Pot’s older brother. The witness said he was never a party member, but he was in the Vietnamese army in 1970 and again in 1973 for three years. He was mainly stationed in Kampong Thom and Siem Reap to protect Angkor Wat. He was later based in Kampong Cham, where the leaders there were Pol Pot, Nuon Chea, Ieng Sary and Khieu Samphan. He confirmed that Pol Pot, Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan ate and worked together on a daily basis. He was also part of a mobile unit and part of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in charge of receiving guests. He testified on the identities of several colleagues from that time. During this time he was married, but it was to a woman of his choice and they were the only couple married at that time. He worked as a guard for Pol Pot. He was trained in photography in China.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 29 November 2016
Ms. KHEAV Neab

The Civil Party was born in 1952. She married her first husband, who worked in the cooperative, in 1973 and had two children with him. In 1974 he was sent to the battlefield and afterwards worked in Central Market in Phnom Penh. He wasn’t a cadre but he was a group leader. She was sent to cook rice for evacuees, which Khieu Samphan distributed. Her husband disappeared in 1978 when he was 25 years old, and she never saw him again. She had to leave Phnom Penh while she was pregnant when her husband disappeared; she gave birth to her baby when she returned in 1979. The CP also had several uncles who disappeared too. She saw Khieu Samphan when he was handing out blue-white karmas to evacuees from the east. Eventually she was allowed to cook rice at the place where her husband was being held, so her son was able to see him although she wasn’t.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 30 November 2016
BEIT Boeurn (BIT Na), alias BIT Beuan

The witness was born in 1950 in Kandal province, and joined the revolution in 1971. She was assigned to various tasks before 1975 such as helping people grow rice and digging tree rots to produce medicine. Her unit arrived in Phnom Penh after the people had been evacuated. She was based at the stadium where she sewed clothes. In 1977 she was assigned to the Ministry of Commerce, in charge of purchasing. Her husband was arrested because he was a driver of Ta Hong; she never saw him again. She attended a study session where Pol Pot, Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan spoke. They were encouraged to smash enemies, even if the enemies were their parents. She became pregnant but after her husband was arrested, she was forced to abort the baby. She was sent to Kampong Chhnang Airfield. Everyone there was very skinny and no children. She said they were fed poorly

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 02 November 2016
2-TCCP-223

The Civil Party  live in Pursat province prior to the revolution. After 1975 he was a messenger at Battambang University alongside Horn. He helped to receive visitors around when they came for study sessions. In 1977 Nuon Chea said his father was a traitor and therefore the CP was brought into Phnom Penh. Both his father and uncle were arrested and sent to S-21. He worked with Khan who worked with Nuon Chea. Khan said Nuon Chea gave the order to demolish all pagodas, because it was unnecessary to practice any religious beliefs. All of his father’s relatives were killed. To the CP’s knowledge, they purged people in the Northwest Zone and replaced them with cadres from the Southwest Zone, around 500-600 according to him. In his closing statement, he explained how difficult his situation is now – “lower than animals” – and how hard it was to be separated from his family, no education, no land or means of survival.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 21 November 2016
Mrs. THUCH Sithan

The witness was born on 2 January 1965 and currently resides in Paris. She worked in the Ministry of Social Affairs under Ieng Tirith. She distributed medicine because she could read French. When she worked at the ministry, several of her superiors under Ieng Tirith disappeared and did not come back. At meetings they were told they had to smash the enemy. The witness’s marriage took place in September 1976 at the Ministry. Three couples were married at the same time. Bong Sou acted as the parents during the ceremony. She did not know her husband well before they were instructed to get married. She asked to confirm that he was not married in France. She had to force herself to marry him because in fact she was in love with his secretary, who she knew better and thought was better looking. None of her family attended the marriage. She became pregnant within six months. Her husband disappeared three months later. She saw Nuon Chea speak at a meeting, and met with Khieu Samphan.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 21 November 2016, Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 22 November 2016
2-TCCP-235

The Civil Party was a monk in Kampot province who was forcibly defrocked by the militia group of “Revolutionary Angkar” in 1971, when he was 15. He was part of the division that seized Phnom Penh. He described women greeting them with flowers upon entering the city, but said some soldiers beat up those women and threw the flowers away. He and the other soldiers were told that Lon Nol soldiers would be killed. He had friends and siblings who were Lon Nol soldiers. He found them and told them to take off their uniforms and lie if they were asked about who they were. He was in the navy but was later arrested and put to hard labour because they thought he was an enemy spy. He remembers seeing Nuon Chea and Ta Mok together while filming a video about fighting between China and Japan.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 10 November 2016, Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 11 November 2016
2-TCW-913

The witness was a monk until 17 April 1975, when all 19 monks in his pagoda were forcibly defrocked. He was transferred to a rice cooperative for a few months. He was part of the group referred to as “Monkey Forces” because they were newcomers. He was transferred to another cooperative, where he tasted food for guests to make sure it wasn’t poisoned. Later he was moved to the East Zone. There, he stated, he was overworked and not given enough food, so some people tried to find food in the forest. After this they were all rounded up and arrested for 14 days, during which time they were fed just one or two piece of potato per meal. They were then taken away to be killed. The witness was hit several times over the head but managed to survive, as did one other named Khan. They untied each other and managed to live for over a month in a cave near their worksite which had been abandoned. The witness had to drink his own urine to survive.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 10 November 2016
2-TCW-1065

The witness joined the revolution as a soldier in 1970 because the late King Sihanouk told his people to do so. In 1971 he attended medical training and became a medic on the district level, becoming chief of the hospital in 1976. In late 1977 all the commanders in his division – the witness included – were called to a meeting, which he did not attend because he was stationed on the battlefront. Everyone at the meeting was later arrested. After this the witness realized Pol Pot committed treason, because he sent in troops to arrest these commanders. He began organizing resistance against Pol Pot, coordinating with Vietnam to do so. He felt he was forced to hide in the jungle because Pol Pot was killing people at random. According to the witness, the Cambodian-Vietnamese conflict originally started in 1973 because the superpowers supporting each country were not sending equal amounts of materials. He testified that there were strategy meetings held in Ho Chi Minh City prior to the invasion. The witness was related to Sao Phim and told him about Pol Pot’s treasonous actions. After the latter’s overthrow the witness was placed in a prison by the Vietnamese. The witness testified on a variety of names and topics relating to the Vietnamese intervention in Cambodia and internal purges.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 1 November 2016, Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 2 November 2016, Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 7 November 2016, Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 8 November 2016
2-TCW-1046

Ieng Phan was born in 1952 in Takeo province. He was promoted through the ranks of the army up to the  position of regiment commander. He was part of the attack on Phnom Penh in 1975. His division attacked the Vietnamese at the border in 1977, when the fighting was still sporadic. He recalls the Vietnamese troops entering Takeo, very far from the border. The Cambodian side experienced more casualties because the Vietnamese were better armed and larger in numbers. So they often tried to hit the Vietnamese from behind because in a head-on fight they would have lost – therefore according to the witness they were only trying to
defend their territory. Their orders from up top were to do just that.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 1 November 2016, [Corrected] Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 31 October 2016
Mr. SOV Maing

Sao Maing was born in 1951 in Mondulkiri province. He was a Khmer Rouge soldier between 1975-79. He was married to his wife who he knew before and loved. He described border clashes that occurred between the Cambodians and Vietnamese around 1976, and intensified in 1977- 78. He said there was no fighting inside
Vietnamese territory, only when they came into Cambodia.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 27 October 2016
NGET Chat

Nget Chat was born in Pursat province, where she lives today. She narrowly avoided execution in 1978 but her husband did not. She was forced to marry three or four days after he disappeared. Her entire family was killed. Her husband and her family was Kampuchea Krom. She was told to remarry because she had children and to think of their destiny.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 24 October 2016, [Corrected 2] Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 25 October 2016
SAY Naroeun

Soy Naroeun was born in 1955 in Kampong Cham. She was separated from her family on 17 April 1975. She worked in a mobile unit with 20-30 other women. She was forced to be married in 1975. She was upset because her parents were not there, but she agreed to give herself to her husband because there were militiamen walking back and forth in front of the shelter they were sleeping in. She became pregnant soon after but was forced to work regardless. She got malaria at six months and the baby died because she had no  medicine to cure her malaria. She became pregnant again and this time the child survived. Her sister was also married but not until 1978 when conditions were much worse. 11 of her relatives died.

[Corrected 2] Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 25 October 2016
CHUON Thi

He was promoted to regiment leader three months after the fall of Phnom Penh. He was in charge of troops defending the city. He stated that he was allowed to employ his own strategies to defend without communicating with the others, because it was Cambodian territory. He said the KR did not have a policy to attack the Vietnamese but because the latter attacked, they had to attack them. He married without being forced – he loved his wife, who was an ordinary citizen, and asked his unit chief to marry her. His parents were not present. He said if people did not like each other then they did not have to marry. He had never encountered people being monitored to enure they consummated a marriage. He repeatedly said that Cambodian troops who engaged in combat with Vietnamese troops were simply defending their country.

[Corrected 2] Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 25 October 2016
Mr. KUL Nem

Kul Nem was born around 1956 in Takeo province. He was moved in the arm from Phnom Penh to Kratie and then Mondulkiri in 1975. He was forced to marry there, despite having a fiancé already in his village. He still feels guilty about that to this day. His wife became pregnant but she miscarried because she was exhausted
from being overworked. He was sent to K-11 which was a punishment. His wife was from the Pnong ethnicity.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 24 October 2016
Ms. PREAP Sokhoeum

Preap Sokhoeum was born in 1951 in Kampong Cham province. She had two daughters. She was working on a cotton plantation in 1975 when she was called to be married. After the marriage she found only sadness. She did not know her husband before. Both were weeping because they wanted their parents here. He tried to have sex with her but she told him because the marriage hadn’t been held with the proper customs she did
not acknowledge it and therefore did not allow him to touch her. She knew they were being watched. Eventually he raped her. She became pregnant after that. Her husband came to see her one day and she
didn’t even remember his face. He raped her again, telling her that it was Angkar’s instructions and it would kill them both if they didn’t have sex. He later disappeared, and she was told her baby would be killed because her husband was a traitor. She knew several couples who had refused to consummate their marriage or get married, and they were all disappeared. Her siblings were all killed because one of them had been a Lon Nol soldier. She asserted that the KR completely eliminated the feeling of family relationship.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 20 October 2016
Mr. Stephen John MORRIS

The expert was born in 1949. He is an Australian researcher, writer and teacher in international politics and history. He has studied and written on the relations between Vietnam and Cambodia during this period. He tried to understand why these two former allies country came into a military conflict. To him, it was different Communists who misunderstood the situation. He explained that the behavior of the Vietnamese was aimed
at creating one space with one ethnicity, called Indochina Federation. He added that imperialism was deeply rooted in the Vietnamese elite. The Vietnamese always wanted to have control in Cambodia, but Pol Pot’s policies gave them an apparent license to intervene and eliminate Cambodia’s independence. The Vietnamese used Cambodians who retreated to Vietnam in 1954 to reinfiltrate in order to control Cambodian communism. He said that the concept of the “enemy” was very central to these movements. According to him as Stalin had
created a construct in which his rivals were seen as agent of foreign powers, Pol Pot created a narrative in which the enemies from within were KTB or CIA agents. It was a period of paranoia and personality cults. He described DK as a conspiratorial organization. Morris recounted that in April 1977, DK attacked a Vietnamese
village causing a substantial number of civilian casualties. He said it was irrational, because Cambodia was much weaker than Vietnam. Indeed there was a disparity of strength between both sides. The purges and terror campaigns that took place after 1975 were directed against loyal members of the KR. This showed, he said, paranoia and weakness in relation to the conflict with Vietnam. KR were against the Soviet Union and sympathetic to China until 1976.

Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 19 October 2016, Transcript of hearing on the substance in Case 002/02 – 18 October 2016

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